CHP-123-The History of the Chinese in Mexico

A Chinese restaurant located in La Chinesca, the Chinatown of Mexicali, Baja California Norte
A Chinese restaurant located in La Chinesca, the Chinatown of Mexicali, Baja California Norte

After the longest delay in between CHP episodes ever, we resume our Chinese history voyage. This time we look at a topic that isn’t particularly well-known but offers a glimpse of one sliver of the Chinese diaspora that began once the Qing Dynasty began to fall on hard times.    The story of the Chinese Mexicans is typical in some respects.  They came to Mexico either because they wanted to and saw it as a land of opportunity or they came because it was the next best thing to emigrating to the United States.  Many stayed in Mexico despite great hardships and the usual racism directed against them.  But most either moved on to try their luck in the US or they were forced out by racist and nationalistic anti-Chinese immigration policies.  I suggest three books if you are interested to read more about this subject:

The Chinese In Mexico 1882-1940 by Robert Chao Romero published by the University of Arizona Press

Making the Chinese Mexican – Global Migration, Localism and Exclusion in the US-Mexico Borderlands by Grace Peña Delgado, published by Stanford University Press and Chinese Mexicans

Transpacific Migration and the Search for a Homeland 1910-1960 by Julia María Schiavone Camacho published by University of North Carolina Press.

Any amigos Mexicanos who want to consider producing a Mexican History Podcast should get moving. Yours is a great history and culture that a lot of English speakers in the history podcast listening community would love to know about.  My apologies to all for my Gringo accented Spanish in this episode.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Estados Unidos Mexicanos – Official name of Mexico, the United States of Mexico

Sonora – Northern State in Mexico

Baja – Refers to Baja California, the northern of the two states that make up the Baja Peninsula.  Baja California Sur is the southern state.

Hermosillo – Capital of Sonora State

Nogales – Major city in Sonora located on the border with Arizona

Magdalena – City in Sonora

Obregon – City on Sonora

Guaymas – coastal city in Sonora

La Chinesca – The Chinatown of Mexicali

El Barrio Chino – The Chinatown of Mexico City

Zhonghua Huiguan 中华会馆  The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association

Da Lusong 大吕宋 Big Lusong, what the Chinese called Mexico

Xiao Lusong 小吕宋  Small Lusong, what the Chinese called the Philippines

Porfirio Díaz Long serving 29th president of Mexico, ushered in a period of modernization and economic growth.

Benito Juarez 26th president of Mexico

Compañia de Colonización Asiatica The company given the exclusive right to import Chinese labor

Matias Romero Mexican politician and government official, lobbied hard for the passing of the Treaty of Amity & Commerce.

Tlaxcala Very small state in Mexico located in the east-central part of the country.

Chihuahua Northern Mexican state.  Borders New Mexico and West Texas

La Migra The slang word used to call the US Immigration and Customs Service

Chin Pinoy Six Companies agent in Cuba

guanxi 关系 Personal relationships and a whole lot more

Revolución Mexicana The Mexican Revolution

fronterizos The Mexican Chinese who toughed it out in the northern states.

Partido Revolucionario Institucional  The PRI, Mexico’s dominant political party for over 70 years.

José Mária Arana The champion for the cause of expelling all Chinese from Mexico.  A leader of the anti-Chinese movement

Comité Directivo de Antichinismo Nacional One of many organizations dedicated to expelling the Chinese from Mexico.

La Liga Nacional Obrera Antichina  Another organization dedicated to expelling the Chinese from Mexico.

Movimento Anti-Chino The Anti-Chinese Movement (in Mexico)

Coahuila Northern Mexican state that borders Texas

Durango Northwest Mexican state.

Torreón Located in the western part of Coahuila State

Francisco Madero Mexican statesman and revolutionary, assassinated in 1913.

El Presidente The president

Alvaro Obregon 39th president of Mexico

Francisco S. Elias Governor of Sonora 1929-193

Rodolfo Elias Calles  Governor of Sonora 1931-1935

Lázaro Cárdenas  44th president of Mexico 1934-1940

CHP-122-The Chinese Civil War Part 4

After witnessing the May Fourth Movement 30 years before, Mao Zedong gives his historic speech on the viewing platform of Tiananmen on October 1, 1949.
After witnessing the May Fourth Movement 30 years before, Mao Zedong gives his historic speech on the viewing platform of Tiananmen on October 1, 1949.

In this part 4 episode we conclude our overview of the Chinese Civil War.  After the Pingjin Campaign ended in January of 1949 it was time for the Communists to finish off what they started.  Victory was imminent but by no means would it be easy and simple.  The PLA forces dramatically crossed the Yangzi River in May and their great generals led their forces to a smashing victory, finishing off the KMT forces of Chiang Kai-shek by December 1949.  On December 10, 1949 the Generalissimo boarded a flight to Taiwan, leaving his rival Mao Zedong as the undisputed leader of China.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Pingjin  平津  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Liaoshen  辽沈  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Huaihai  淮海  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Xibaipo  西柏坡 Sit of Mao’s military headquarters after he was pushed out of Yan’an

Lin Biao 林彪  PLA General in Manchuria and northern China

Li Zongren 李宗仁  Served as Acting President after Chiang Kai-shek stepped down

Chen Yi  陈毅 PLA General and future foreign minister

Su Yu 粟裕 PLA general

Hukou 湖口 City in Jiangxi Province (江西省)

Jiujiang  九江 City in Jiangxi Province (江西省)

Jiangyin 江阴 City in Jiangsu province (江苏省)

Wuxi 无锡  City in Jiangsu province (江苏省)

Pukou 浦口 City in Jiangsu province and a district of Nanjing

Nanjing 南京 Capital of Jiangsu as well as the capital of the Republic of China

Liu Bocheng  刘伯承  PLA General (Deng Xiaoping partner in civil war)

Chongqing 重庆 City formerly in Sichuan province (now a Municipality) and wartime capital of the Rep. of China.

Tang Enbo 汤恩伯 KMT general

Chen Yi 陈议 KMT general and politician (not to be confused with the Communist Chen Yi 陈毅)

Du Yuesheng 杜月笙  Big Eared Du – Underworld crime boss in Shanghai

Zhabei Park 闸北公园 Park in Shanghai

Yan Huizhu 言慧珠 Shanghai screen actress, very big in her day.

Peng Dehuai 彭德怀  PLA General

Gansu 甘肃 Province in China

Ningxia 宁夏  Province in China

Qinghai 青海 Province in China

Hu Zongnan 胡宗南  Nationalist General

Ma Bufang  马步芳 Warlord general of the Ma clan in Northwest China

Ma Hongkui  马鸿逵  Warlord general of the Ma clan in Northwest China

Baoji  宝鸡  City in Shaanxi province (陕西省)

Ma Zhanao  马占鳌  One of the founding patriarchs of the the Ma Clan of the Northwest of China

Ma Qianling  马千零  One of the founding patriarchs of the the Ma Clan of the Northwest of China

Ma Haiyan  马海宴  One of the founding patriarchs of the the Ma Clan of the Northwest of China

Changsha  长沙  Capital of Hunan province (湖南省)

Xiamen  厦门  City in Fujian Province (福建省)

Chen Cheng  陈诚  KMT general and politician

Chengdu 成都  Capital of Sichuan province

The Common Program 共同纲领 Mao’s blueprint for the new China

Zhongnanhai  中南海 Adjacent to the Forbidden City, the compound where China’s highest leaders live.

Xinhai Revolution 辛亥革命 The revolution that led to the end of the Qing Dynasty

Liu Bang 刘邦 Founder of the Han Dynasty

Li Shimin  李世民  Co-founder of the Tang Dyansty

Zhao Kuangyin  赵匡胤  Founder of the Song Dynasty

Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋  Founder of the Ming Dynasty

Xuzhou  徐州 City in Jiangsu Province

Zhang Qifu 張奇夫 The infamous opium warlord of the Burma Shan State, Khun Sa

Chiang Ching-kuo 蒋经国 Son of Chiang Kai-shek (and successor as president of the ROC)

CHP-121-The Chinese Civil War Part 3

Pictured in the center are Deng Xiaoping (L) and his partner in the Central Plains victories, the One-Eyed Dragon, Liu Bocheng(R).
Pictured in the center are Deng Xiaoping (L) and his partner in the Central Plains victories, the One-Eyed Dragon, Liu Bocheng(R).

This episode mainly covers the year 1948 and the three great campaigns that sealed Chiang Kai-shek’s fate on the Chinese mainland.  The focus will be on the Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin Campaigns that not only grabbed all of north China and Manchuria for the Communists but the heartland and everything north of the Yangzi River as well.  By the end of 1948 all treasures, gold bullion, silver, currency and tangible assets that the KMT could get their hands on was well on its way to Taiwan….just in case.  Things had never looked more grim for Chiang and all supporters of the Nationalist regime.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Lin Biao 林彪  PLA General in Manchuria and northern China

Chen Yi  陈毅 PLA General and future foreign minister

Han Gaozu 汉高祖 Liu Bang, founder of the Han Dynasty

Chen Yun 陈云  One of Mao’s earliest political allies

Li Fuchun  李富春 PLA General

Zhang Wentian  张闻天  One of the 28 Bolsheviks who switched allegiance to Mao

Gao Gang  高岗  PLA leader who served closely with Lin Biao.

Zhu De  朱德  PLA General

Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇  Communist leader (and later Cultural Revolution main target)

Peng Dehuai 彭德怀  PLA General

Yang Shangkun  杨尚昆 Longtime

Shaan-Gan-Ning Bianqu 陕甘宁边区  The military region that covered parts of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia.

Jin-Cha-Ji 晋察冀  another military region of the Communists covering parts of Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Hebei.

in 1948

Zhangjiakou  张家口 Strategic city in Hebei near Beijing where Mao headed to after Yan’an fell

Xibaipo  西柏坡 Sit of Mao’s military headquarters after he was pushed out of Yan’an

Liaoshen  辽沈  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Huaihai  淮海  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Pingjin  平津  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Fujian  福建 Province in China

Guangdong  广东 Province in China

Guangxi  广西 Province in China

Changchun  长春 Capital of Jilin province in Manchuria

Manchukuo  满洲国  Japanese puppet state in Manchuria, capital was at Changchun

Jinzhou  锦州 City in Liaoning province

Shanhaiguan  山海关Located on the Hebei coast, this is the city where the Great Wall begins.

Liu Bocheng  刘伯承  PLA General (Deng Xiaoping partner in civil war)

Dabie Mountains  大别山 Mountain chain just northeast of Wuhan in Hubei province

Chen Cheng  陈诚  NRA General

Ma Yingjiu  马英九 Current president and chairman of the KMT

Xing Zhong Hui  兴中会 The Revive China Society, forerunner to the KMT

Du Yuming 杜聿明  Nationalist General

Huang Wei  黄伟 Nationalist General

Liu Zhi  刘峙 Nationalist General

Xuzhou  徐州 City in Jiangsu province

Huabei  华北  Northern China

Geng Biao  耿彪 PLA leader

Xi Zhongxun  习仲勋 Father of China’s current President and CCP Chairman

Xinbao’an  City located in between Zhangjiakou and Beijing in Hebei province

Fu Zuoyi 傅作义  Nationalist General

Li Zongren 李宗仁  Nationalist General

Chang Jiang 长江  The Yangzi River

Fenghua  奉化 City and county in Zhejiang, near Ningbo

Xikou  溪口 Town in Fenghua county, birthplace of Chiang Kai-shek

Koxinga  郑成功 Ming Dynasty loyalist who fought on against the Qing from his Taiwan base. Also known as Cheng Ch’eng-kung.

Hu Zongnan 胡宗南  Nationalist General

Siping 四平 Site, in Jilin Province, of a major civil war campaign

Liaoning 辽宁  Province in Manchuria

Chen Mingren  陈明仁  NRA Geberal

Chen Cheng  陈诚  NRA General

Nie Rongzhen  聂荣臻  PLA General

Zhejiang  浙江 Province in China

Jiangsu  江苏  Province in China

Anhui  安徽 Province in China

Hubei  湖北 Province in China

 

 

CHP-120-The Chinese Civil War Part 2

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek appearing on the cover of Time December 6, 1948.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek appearing on the cover of Time December 6, 1948.

 

This week’s episode focuses mainly on the year 1947.  The Americans have now left and the NRA and PLA attack each other with all they got.  The years starts out well for the Nationalists as they pummel the PLA in Manchuria and in the north.  But once the summer offensive begins, it’s a steady stream of bad news for Chiang.  Ultimately with the conclusion of the bloody Siping Campaign that ended in March 1948, Manchuria was lost for good.  Chiang would never be able to win it back.  Once this feather was in Mao’s cap, plans were made to conquer the rest of China.  This would take two more years.

 

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Harbin 哈尔滨 Written as Haerbin in pinyin but more commonly as Harbin, it is the capital of Heilongjiang province.

Guomin Gemingjun 国民革命军 The National Revolutionary Army (NRA)

Li Denghui 李登辉 Former president of Taiwan 1988-2000.

Chengguan 城管  Street police of China in charge of maintaining order on the streets, especially amongst vendors.  They are famously unpopular amongst the local people where they serve.

Li Zongren 李宗仁  Nationalist General

Fu Zuoyi 傅作义  Nationalist General

Du Yuming 杜聿明  Nationalist General

Hu Zongnan 胡宗南  Nationalist General

Peng Dehuai 彭德怀  PLA General

Shaan-Gan-Ning Bianqu 陕甘宁边区  The military region that covered parts of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia.

Zaolin’gou  枣林沟 a village in Shaanxi where the CCP leadership had an important meeting.

Jin-Cha-Ji 晋察冀  another military region of the Communists covering parts of Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Hebei.

Taiyuan  太原  Capital of Shanxi Province

Ren Bishi  任弼时  PLA General

Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇  Communist leader (and later Cultural Revolution main target)

Zhu De  朱德  PLA General

Niangziguan  娘子关  Site of a civil war battle

Tang’Erli  堂二里  Site (in Hebei)of a civil war battle

Heshui  合水 Site (in Gansu) of a civil war campaign

Nanma-Linqu  南临战役 Site (in Hebei) of a civil war campaign

Tai’an 泰安  Site (in Shandong) of civil war battle

Linfen  临汾 in Shanxi province, also known as the most polluted city in the world, it was the site of a civil war campaign in 1948

Chen Yi  陈毅 PLA General and future foreign minister

Chen Yi 陈议  NRA General

Siping 四平 Site, in Jilin Province, of a major civil war campaign

Li Fuchun  李富春 PLA General

Siping Zhanyi  四平战役 The Siping Campaign

Tieling  铁岭  City in Liaoning, site of a civil war battle

Liaoning 辽宁  Province in Manchuria

Changchun  长春 Capital of Jilin province in Manchuria

Manchukuo  满洲国  Japanese puppet state in Manchuria, capital was at Changchun

Chen Mingren  陈明仁  NRA Geberal

Chen Cheng  陈诚  NRA General

Nie Rongzhen  聂荣臻  PLA General

Liu Bocheng  刘伯承  PLA General (Deng Xiaoping partner in civil war)

Ye Jianying  叶剑英  PLA General

Li Xiannian  李先念  PLA General

Zhejiang  浙江 Province in China

Jiangsu  江苏  Province in China

Anhui  安徽 Province in China

Hubei  湖北 Province in China

Hunan 湖南 Province in China

Fujian  福建 Province in China

Guangdong  广东 Province in China

Guangxi  广西 Province in China

Yunnan  云南 Province in China

Cao Wei  曹魏  The Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms Period

Sun Wu  孙吴  The Kingdom of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms Period

Shu Han  蜀汉  The Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms Period

Liaoshen  辽沈  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Huaihai  淮海  Civil War Campaign in 1948

Pingjin  平津  Civil War Campaign in 1948

CHP-119-The Chinese Civil War Part 1

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Pictured in the front row are US Ambassador Patrick Hurley, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong posing together in 1945.
Pictured in the front row are US Ambassador Patrick Hurley, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong posing together in 1945.

In this week’s episode we begin a multi-part series covering the Chinese Civil War from 1945 to 1949.  In China this is known as the War of Liberation.  In this Part 1 we will look at the background leading up to the war as well as failed attempts by the Americans in 1945-1946 to mediate a peace between Mao’s Communists and the Nationalists led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Battle of Red Cliffs 赤壁之战  Epic battle (and blockbuster movie) where Cao Cao met his Waterloo during the Three Kingdoms Period

Song Jiaoren 宋教仁  One of the founders of KMT, assassinated in 1913.

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 The great Qin dynasty founder

Jinggangshan 井冈山 In Jiangxi, on the Hunan border, where Mao set up a successful Soviet

Xian Incident  西安事变 December 1936, in a plot led by Marshall Zhang Xueliang, Chiang Kai-shek is kidnapped.

Qiangganzi limian chu zhengquan 枪杆子里面出政权 Power grows from the barrol of a gun

Nongmin 农民 Peasants, farmers

Manchukuo  满洲国 Japanese puppet state in Manchuria

Liaoning 辽宁 Province of Manchuria

Jilin  吉林  Province of Manchuria

Heilongjiang 黑龙江 Province of Manchuria

Dongbei  东北  The northeast (Manchuria)

Harbin  哈尔滨  Capital of Heilongjiang

Changchun  长春 capital of Manchukuo and Jilin Province

Shenyang  沈阳  Industrial city on Liaoning

Dalian  大连  Port city in Liaoning

Lin Biao  林彪  Great PLA general

Chen Yi 陈毅  Great PLA general

He Long  贺龙  Great PLA general

Koumi Fujian 口蜜腹剑  Sweet talking but a sword in the belly

Zhang Zuolin  张作霖  Warlord of Manchuria

Li Xiannian  李先念  Great PLA general

Nie Rongzhen  聂荣臻  Great PLA general

Liu Shaoqu  刘少奇  Early political leader of the CCP

Ren Bishi  任弼时 Great PLA general and political figure. Died 1950.

Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun  中国人民解放军 The PLA

Zhongguo laobaixing  中国老百姓  The Chinese people

Zhou Gong  周公 The Duke of Zhou

 

 

CHP-118-John Service Part 4

John Service, photographed in front of the State Department.
John Service, photographed in front of the State Department.

In this episode we will conclude our overview of the life and times of John Stewart Service.  Ambassador Hurley has declared war against his detractors.  US-China policy is thrown for a loop as the two contenders for power vie for control of the agenda.  Already the CCP and KMT are facing off militarily in some parts of China.  As the Red Army brings Mao Zedong to power, people in the US who are following this situation start screaming bloody murder and demanding to know how this happened.  In this rush to judgment, John Service will serve as the lightning rod for much of the bitter struggle.  For a little over a decade Service became one of the most famous victims of the McCarthy hearings.  But in the end there was a happy ending.  He truly was one of the great China Hands of his time.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer  Replaced Stilwell as commander of US forces in China

Col. David Barrett Long serving US military man in China, headed the Dixie Mission

“Wild” Bill Donovan Founder and head of the OSS, forerunner to the US CIA.

Raymond P. Ludden  Foreign Service officer extraordinaire, Dixie Mission member

George Atcheson Deputy to Hurley at the US Embassy in Chongqing

Brig. Gen. Mervin Gross  Second in command to Wedemeyer in Chongqing.

J. Edgar Hoover  Top guy at the FBI

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer based in DC

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Philip Jaffe  Known Communist operating in the publishing industry, co-founded Amerasia, a left-leaning journal

Tai Li (Dai Li)  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.

Patrick Hurley  Succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

 

 

CHP-117-John Service Part 3

a 51 year old Mao Zedong chews the fat with 35 year old John S. Service during the Dixie Mission of 1944-45
a 51 year old Mao Zedong chews the fat with 35 year old John S. Service during the Dixie Mission of 1944-45

This week’s episode runs way into overtime but at least we’re getting through to the end of 1944.  The Dixie Mission is in full swing by the end of that year.  John Service has established himself in Washington circles as one of the most informed and dynamic China hands.  But there are those who don’t welcome his glowing reports of the Communists and damning news about the Nationalist government.  As WWII enters its final year, new battle lines are being drawn that will pit pro-Communist against anti-Communist and this battle will ultimately lead to the Cold War.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Zhu De  朱德 Mao’s earliest comrade and PLA Founder

Ye Jianying  叶剑英  One of Mao’s generals and a key person in PRC history

Lin Biao  林彪 One of Mao’s generals and another key person in PRC history

Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer  Replaced Stilwell as commander of US forces in China

Sol Adler  U.S. Treasury Dept official, Jack Service’s roommate in Chongqing, later accused of being a Soviet spy

Ji Chaoding  Lived upstairs from Service and Adler, a CCP propagandist and mole in Chongqing.

Lin Zuhan  林祖涵  Also called Lin Boqu (林伯渠).  Early CCO member who flew up to Yan’an with Hurley from Chongqing

Tongchuang Yimeng  同床异梦  Same bed but different dreams

goutong  沟通  communication

jiaoliu  交流  dialog

heimingdan   黑名单  Black List

Col. David Barrett Long serving US military man in China, headed the Dixie Mission

Chen Yi  陈毅  One of Mao’s generals and another key person in PRC history

Jiang Qing  江青 Mao’s last wife who came to Yan’an in 1937

Li Dazhao  李大钊  Former CCP founder along with Chen Duxiu (陈独秀)

Xi Jinping  习近平  CCP Party Decretary and Central Military Commission (CMC) Chairman

Chuck Hagel  USA Defense Secretary

Brooks Atkinson  Former writer for the New York Times

Andrew Roth  Will feature prominently in Part 4. He introduced Jack service to a lot of people.

T.V. Soong  宋子文  Brother of Madame Chiang and an all round KMT stalwart and CKS aide

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

Madame Chiang (Song Meiling) 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling (Hurley called her Madame Shek!)

Henry Wallace  FDR’s Vice President, led the Wallace Mission

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer based in DC

Clarence Gauss  Long-serving US diplomat in China.  Appointed ambassador to China (in Chungking) during the the early war years. Resigned in disgust at the firing of Stilwell.

Theodore White  白修德  Immortal American writer, historian and journalist.  Got the word out to American about the Henan Famine

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Tai Li (Dai Li)  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.

Henry Luce  China-born publisher of two of the most influential American magazines of their day, Time and Life.  Chiang Kai-shek’s most valuable supporter in the US.

Harry Hopkins  One of Roosevelt’s closest advisors

Patrick Hurley  Succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

 

CHP-116-John Service Part 2

John Service 2
John S. Service in 1944

In this second episode covering the life of John S. Service we take a look at the general situation and the proliferation of mistrust and bad faith in wartime Chongqing.  Chiang Kai-shek remains baffled and frustrated with American efforts to cozy up to Mao. He blames the China Hands such as John Service for feeding American officials the CCP propaganda.  It’s a poisonous atmosphere in China and the spectre of civil war keeps growing.  Factions within the US government begin to circle their wagons and listen only to each other rather than understand what was happening in front of their eyes.  In this episode we continue to watch as these events unfold as told through the life of John Service.

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PEOPLE / TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Cordell Hull US Secretary of State for most of WWII

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

Madame Chiang (Song Meiling) 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling

Milton E. (Mary) Miles Naval Intel spook and Deputy Dirctor of SACO

Henry Wallace  FDR’s Vice President, led the Wallace Mission

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Clarence Gauss  Long-serving US diplomat in China.  Appointed ambassador to China (in Chungking) during the the early war years

Stanley Hornbeck Special advisor to Cordell Hull.  Very serious CKS supporter

Max Hamilton  Protégé of Stanley Hornbeck and Chief of the China Affairs Bureau at State

“Wild Bill” Donovan  Founder of the OSS, forerunner to the CIA

Owen Lattimore  China, Mongolian and Central Asia specialist sent by Roosevelt to serve as an aid to Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing

Theodore White  白修德  Immortal American writer, historian and journalist.  Got the word out to American about the Henan Famine

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Tai Li (Dai Li)  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.

Henry Luce  China-born publisher of two of the most influential American magazines of their day, Time and Life.  Chiang Kai-shek’s most valuable supporter in the US.

Harry Hopkins  One of Roosevelt’s closest advisors

Patrick Hurley  He will be introduced in Part II. He succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

CHP-115-John Service Part 1

John S. Service (1909-1999) shaking the hand of a friend from the 1930's and 40's, Premier Zhou Enlai.
John S. Service (1909-1999) shaking the hand of a friend from the 1930’s and 40’s, Premier Zhou Enlai. This photo was taken during the visit of Richard Nixon in 1972.

This week we explore the life and times of John S. Service.  I’m using writer Lynne Joiner’s book Honorable Survivor, Mao’s China, McCarthy’s America and the Persecution of John S. Service. This original “China Hand” was born in China and grew up in Chengdu and Shanghai.  He went on to a brilliant career in the State Department serving in China as a Foreign Service officer during the Second Sino-Japanese War and throughout WWII.  Because of his past association with the Communists in Yan’an and the sympathetic view he had about their policies, Service became a prime target of the anti-Communist witch hunts of the early 1950’s.  His career was ruined and he went on to live a life of anonymity and fought for years to clear his name.  In this episode we will look at the early part of his career and examine the lead-up to the Dixie Mission.

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PEOPLE / TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

Caroline Shultz Service  Wife of John Service

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Hankou  汉口  City in Hubei.  The “Han” of Wuhan.

Edgar Snow  Journalist and first Westerner to visit Mao in Yan’an to get a glimpse of what he was building there.  His finding were published in Red Star Over China

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

Madame Chiang (Song Meiling) 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling

Henry Wallace  FDR’s Vice President

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Clarence Gauss  Long-serving US diplomat in China.  Appointed ambassador to China (in Chungking) during the the early war years

Owen Lattimore  China, Mongolian and Central Asia specialist sent by Roosevelt to serve as an aid to Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing

Theodore White  白修德  Immortal American writer, historian and journalist.  Got the word out to American about the Henan Famine

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Tai Li  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.  More of him in Part II.

Henry Luce  China-born publisher of two of the most influential American magazines of their day, Time and Life.  Chiang Kai-shek’s most valuable supporter in the US.

Patrick Hurley  He will be introduced in Part II. He succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

CHP-114-Shang Oracle Bones

Wang Yirong 王懿榮 1845-1900. All later Shang dynasty scholarship was built on the foundation he built upon discovering the opracle bones in 1899.
Wang Yirong 王懿榮 1845-1900. All later Shang dynasty scholarship was built on the foundation he built when he discovered the oracle bones in 1899.

This episode takes a slightly deeper look at the Shang Dynasty and their signature achievement, the oracle bone script.  Some of this episode will be a repeat of things covered in CHP-015.  Like the oldest parts of the oldest world civilizations a lot of what we “know” is the collective guesswork of the best minds researching the history.  From Wang Yirong down to the present generation of scholars, new secrets  of the Shang Dynasty oracle bones continue to be revealed.

Continue reading “CHP-114-Shang Oracle Bones”