CHP-119-The Chinese Civil War Part 1

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Pictured in the front row are US Ambassador Patrick Hurley, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong posing together in 1945.
Pictured in the front row are US Ambassador Patrick Hurley, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong posing together in 1945.

In this week’s episode we begin a multi-part series covering the Chinese Civil War from 1945 to 1949.  In China this is known as the War of Liberation.  In this Part 1 we will look at the background leading up to the war as well as failed attempts by the Americans in 1945-1946 to mediate a peace between Mao’s Communists and the Nationalists led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Battle of Red Cliffs 赤壁之战  Epic battle (and blockbuster movie) where Cao Cao met his Waterloo during the Three Kingdoms Period

Song Jiaoren 宋教仁  One of the founders of KMT, assassinated in 1913.

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 The great Qin dynasty founder

Jinggangshan 井冈山 In Jiangxi, on the Hunan border, where Mao set up a successful Soviet

Xian Incident  西安事变 December 1936, in a plot led by Marshall Zhang Xueliang, Chiang Kai-shek is kidnapped.

Qiangganzi limian chu zhengquan 枪杆子里面出政权 Power grows from the barrol of a gun

Nongmin 农民 Peasants, farmers

Manchukuo  满洲国 Japanese puppet state in Manchuria

Liaoning 辽宁 Province of Manchuria

Jilin  吉林  Province of Manchuria

Heilongjiang 黑龙江 Province of Manchuria

Dongbei  东北  The northeast (Manchuria)

Harbin  哈尔滨  Capital of Heilongjiang

Changchun  长春 capital of Manchukuo and Jilin Province

Shenyang  沈阳  Industrial city on Liaoning

Dalian  大连  Port city in Liaoning

Lin Biao  林彪  Great PLA general

Chen Yi 陈毅  Great PLA general

He Long  贺龙  Great PLA general

Koumi Fujian 口蜜腹剑  Sweet talking but a sword in the belly

Zhang Zuolin  张作霖  Warlord of Manchuria

Li Xiannian  李先念  Great PLA general

Nie Rongzhen  聂荣臻  Great PLA general

Liu Shaoqu  刘少奇  Early political leader of the CCP

Ren Bishi  任弼时 Great PLA general and political figure. Died 1950.

Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun  中国人民解放军 The PLA

Zhongguo laobaixing  中国老百姓  The Chinese people

Zhou Gong  周公 The Duke of Zhou

 

 

CHP-118-John Service Part 4

John Service, photographed in front of the State Department.
John Service, photographed in front of the State Department.

In this episode we will conclude our overview of the life and times of John Stewart Service.  Ambassador Hurley has declared war against his detractors.  US-China policy is thrown for a loop as the two contenders for power vie for control of the agenda.  Already the CCP and KMT are facing off militarily in some parts of China.  As the Red Army brings Mao Zedong to power, people in the US who are following this situation start screaming bloody murder and demanding to know how this happened.  In this rush to judgment, John Service will serve as the lightning rod for much of the bitter struggle.  For a little over a decade Service became one of the most famous victims of the McCarthy hearings.  But in the end there was a happy ending.  He truly was one of the great China Hands of his time.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer  Replaced Stilwell as commander of US forces in China

Col. David Barrett Long serving US military man in China, headed the Dixie Mission

“Wild” Bill Donovan Founder and head of the OSS, forerunner to the US CIA.

Raymond P. Ludden  Foreign Service officer extraordinaire, Dixie Mission member

George Atcheson Deputy to Hurley at the US Embassy in Chongqing

Brig. Gen. Mervin Gross  Second in command to Wedemeyer in Chongqing.

J. Edgar Hoover  Top guy at the FBI

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer based in DC

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Philip Jaffe  Known Communist operating in the publishing industry, co-founded Amerasia, a left-leaning journal

Tai Li (Dai Li)  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.

Patrick Hurley  Succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

 

 

CHP-117-John Service Part 3

a 51 year old Mao Zedong chews the fat with 35 year old John S. Service during the Dixie Mission of 1944-45
a 51 year old Mao Zedong chews the fat with 35 year old John S. Service during the Dixie Mission of 1944-45

This week’s episode runs way into overtime but at least we’re getting through to the end of 1944.  The Dixie Mission is in full swing by the end of that year.  John Service has established himself in Washington circles as one of the most informed and dynamic China hands.  But there are those who don’t welcome his glowing reports of the Communists and damning news about the Nationalist government.  As WWII enters its final year, new battle lines are being drawn that will pit pro-Communist against anti-Communist and this battle will ultimately lead to the Cold War.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Zhu De  朱德 Mao’s earliest comrade and PLA Founder

Ye Jianying  叶剑英  One of Mao’s generals and a key person in PRC history

Lin Biao  林彪 One of Mao’s generals and another key person in PRC history

Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer  Replaced Stilwell as commander of US forces in China

Sol Adler  U.S. Treasury Dept official, Jack Service’s roommate in Chongqing, later accused of being a Soviet spy

Ji Chaoding  Lived upstairs from Service and Adler, a CCP propagandist and mole in Chongqing.

Lin Zuhan  林祖涵  Also called Lin Boqu (林伯渠).  Early CCO member who flew up to Yan’an with Hurley from Chongqing

Tongchuang Yimeng  同床异梦  Same bed but different dreams

goutong  沟通  communication

jiaoliu  交流  dialog

heimingdan   黑名单  Black List

Col. David Barrett Long serving US military man in China, headed the Dixie Mission

Chen Yi  陈毅  One of Mao’s generals and another key person in PRC history

Jiang Qing  江青 Mao’s last wife who came to Yan’an in 1937

Li Dazhao  李大钊  Former CCP founder along with Chen Duxiu (陈独秀)

Xi Jinping  习近平  CCP Party Decretary and Central Military Commission (CMC) Chairman

Chuck Hagel  USA Defense Secretary

Brooks Atkinson  Former writer for the New York Times

Andrew Roth  Will feature prominently in Part 4. He introduced Jack service to a lot of people.

T.V. Soong  宋子文  Brother of Madame Chiang and an all round KMT stalwart and CKS aide

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

Madame Chiang (Song Meiling) 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling (Hurley called her Madame Shek!)

Henry Wallace  FDR’s Vice President, led the Wallace Mission

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer based in DC

Clarence Gauss  Long-serving US diplomat in China.  Appointed ambassador to China (in Chungking) during the the early war years. Resigned in disgust at the firing of Stilwell.

Theodore White  白修德  Immortal American writer, historian and journalist.  Got the word out to American about the Henan Famine

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Tai Li (Dai Li)  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.

Henry Luce  China-born publisher of two of the most influential American magazines of their day, Time and Life.  Chiang Kai-shek’s most valuable supporter in the US.

Harry Hopkins  One of Roosevelt’s closest advisors

Patrick Hurley  Succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

 

CHP-116-John Service Part 2

John Service 2
John S. Service in 1944

In this second episode covering the life of John S. Service we take a look at the general situation and the proliferation of mistrust and bad faith in wartime Chongqing.  Chiang Kai-shek remains baffled and frustrated with American efforts to cozy up to Mao. He blames the China Hands such as John Service for feeding American officials the CCP propaganda.  It’s a poisonous atmosphere in China and the spectre of civil war keeps growing.  Factions within the US government begin to circle their wagons and listen only to each other rather than understand what was happening in front of their eyes.  In this episode we continue to watch as these events unfold as told through the life of John Service.

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PEOPLE / TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Cordell Hull US Secretary of State for most of WWII

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

Madame Chiang (Song Meiling) 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling

Milton E. (Mary) Miles Naval Intel spook and Deputy Dirctor of SACO

Henry Wallace  FDR’s Vice President, led the Wallace Mission

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Clarence Gauss  Long-serving US diplomat in China.  Appointed ambassador to China (in Chungking) during the the early war years

Stanley Hornbeck Special advisor to Cordell Hull.  Very serious CKS supporter

Max Hamilton  Protégé of Stanley Hornbeck and Chief of the China Affairs Bureau at State

“Wild Bill” Donovan  Founder of the OSS, forerunner to the CIA

Owen Lattimore  China, Mongolian and Central Asia specialist sent by Roosevelt to serve as an aid to Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing

Theodore White  白修德  Immortal American writer, historian and journalist.  Got the word out to American about the Henan Famine

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Tai Li (Dai Li)  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.

Henry Luce  China-born publisher of two of the most influential American magazines of their day, Time and Life.  Chiang Kai-shek’s most valuable supporter in the US.

Harry Hopkins  One of Roosevelt’s closest advisors

Patrick Hurley  He will be introduced in Part II. He succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

CHP-115-John Service Part 1

John S. Service (1909-1999) shaking the hand of a friend from the 1930's and 40's, Premier Zhou Enlai.
John S. Service (1909-1999) shaking the hand of a friend from the 1930’s and 40’s, Premier Zhou Enlai. This photo was taken during the visit of Richard Nixon in 1972.

This week we explore the life and times of John S. Service.  I’m using writer Lynne Joiner’s book Honorable Survivor, Mao’s China, McCarthy’s America and the Persecution of John S. Service. This original “China Hand” was born in China and grew up in Chengdu and Shanghai.  He went on to a brilliant career in the State Department serving in China as a Foreign Service officer during the Second Sino-Japanese War and throughout WWII.  Because of his past association with the Communists in Yan’an and the sympathetic view he had about their policies, Service became a prime target of the anti-Communist witch hunts of the early 1950’s.  His career was ruined and he went on to live a life of anonymity and fought for years to clear his name.  In this episode we will look at the early part of his career and examine the lead-up to the Dixie Mission.

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PEOPLE / TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

John Stewart Service  China Hand, Foreign Service officer

Caroline Shultz Service  Wife of John Service

John Paton Davies  Childhood friend of John Service and fellow China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Chengdu 成都 Capital of Sichuan province, birthplace of John Service

Chongqing  重庆 Municipality in China that once was part of Sichuan.  Served as the wartime capital of China after the Nationalists were chased out of Nanjing and Hankou

Hankou  汉口  City in Hubei.  The “Han” of Wuhan.

Edgar Snow  Journalist and first Westerner to visit Mao in Yan’an to get a glimpse of what he was building there.  His finding were published in Red Star Over China

Joseph Stilwell  US Army Four-star general. A legend in his own time.  The bete noir of Chiang Kai-shek

FDR  Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chiang Kai-shek  蒋介石  KMT leader, military strongman and wartime president of China.

Madame Chiang (Song Meiling) 宋美龄 Soong Mei-ling

Henry Wallace  FDR’s Vice President

John Carter Vincent  another China Hand and Foreign Service officer

Clarence Gauss  Long-serving US diplomat in China.  Appointed ambassador to China (in Chungking) during the the early war years

Owen Lattimore  China, Mongolian and Central Asia specialist sent by Roosevelt to serve as an aid to Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing

Theodore White  白修德  Immortal American writer, historian and journalist.  Got the word out to American about the Henan Famine

Lauchlin Currie  A White House economic advisor and aide-de-camp to Franklin Roosevelt

Tai Li  戴笠 Called China’s Himmler…. He was Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of secret police.  More of him in Part II.

Henry Luce  China-born publisher of two of the most influential American magazines of their day, Time and Life.  Chiang Kai-shek’s most valuable supporter in the US.

Patrick Hurley  He will be introduced in Part II. He succeeded Clarence Gauss as Ambassador to China during the latter half of the War.

CHP-114-Shang Oracle Bones

Wang Yirong 王懿榮 1845-1900. All later Shang dynasty scholarship was built on the foundation he built upon discovering the opracle bones in 1899.
Wang Yirong 王懿榮 1845-1900. All later Shang dynasty scholarship was built on the foundation he built when he discovered the oracle bones in 1899.

This episode takes a slightly deeper look at the Shang Dynasty and their signature achievement, the oracle bone script.  Some of this episode will be a repeat of things covered in CHP-015.  Like the oldest parts of the oldest world civilizations a lot of what we “know” is the collective guesswork of the best minds researching the history.  From Wang Yirong down to the present generation of scholars, new secrets  of the Shang Dynasty oracle bones continue to be revealed.

Continue reading “CHP-114-Shang Oracle Bones”

CHP-113-Dr. Norman Bethune

A self-portrait drawing of Dr. Henry Norman Bethune 1890-1939
A self-portrait drawing of Dr. Henry Norman Bethune 1890-1939

This week we look at the Canadian and international hero Dr. Norman Bethune.  Bethune is a staple among noted western friends and advisors who came to China in 1938 to help the Communists and the people in their struggle against the Japanese.  He was not only a great friend of China, but a gifted and brilliant man of medicine as well who had a great impact on thoracic surgery in his day.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Huangshikou  黄石口  The village in Hebei where Norman Bethune died

Bai Qiu’en  白求恩  Norman Bethune

Qiqi Shibian  七七事变  The 7-7- Incident or Marco Polo Bridge Incident

Hankou  汉口  One of the three cities making up the metropolis of Wuhan

Xian  西安  Ancient city in Shaanxi Province

Balujun  八路军  The 8th Route Army

Babaoshan Cemetery 八宝山革命公墓  The Babaoshan Revolutionary Martyrs Cemetery

Ma Haide 马海德  Dr. George Hatem

Nie Rongzhen  聂荣臻  One of the Ten Marshals of the PLA

Jin Cha Ji  晋察冀  The Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei region

Shanxi  山西  Province in the north

Laiyuan  涞源 City in Hebei near Baoding

Yan, Jin, Zhao, Cao Wei  燕,晋,赵,曹魏  Ancient Kingdoms in Hebei

Jinian Bai Qiu’en  纪念白求恩  In Memory of Norman Bethune (written by Mao Zedong)

Song Qingling  宋庆龄  Madam Sun Yat-sen

 

CHP-112-The Kaifeng Jews

A model of the Kaifeng Synagogue, the center of Jewish life in China for over 700 years.
A model of the Kaifeng Synagogue, the center of Jewish life in China for over 700 years.

This week we look at a topic many have heard about but aren’t familiar with the details.   We look at the early origins of the Jewish people in China and the time of the settlement in Kaifeng, Henan.  Although you’d be hard pressed to find a minyan amongst the native Jews in Kaifeng today, there are efforts being made to revive Judaism in that ancient city.  It’s an interesting story that spans a millenium and offers a look at Chinese history from another angle.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Kaifeng 开封 Ancient city in Henan

Zhang Qian  张骞  Han dynasty explorer who journeyed west in the 2nd century BC

Han Wudi  汉武帝  Long reigning Han emperor on the throne during the time of Zhang Qian

Han Guangwu  汉光武  Founder of Eastern Han Dynasty

xifan  稀饭 Rice porridge or gruel

Bianliang  汴梁  Ancient name of the the city of Kaifeng

Tang Dezong  唐德宗  Tang Emperor who granted permission to Jews to build a synagogue in Bianliang.

Fuchai  夫差  King of Wu State credited with the building of the Han Gou

Han Gou  邗沟  The Han Canal

Sui Yangdi  隋炀帝  Sui emperor credited with building the Grand Canal

Qin Guan  秦观  Song Dynasty poet, considered one of the best.

Zhengzhou  郑州  Ancient city in Henan, just west of Kaifeng

Luoyang  洛阳  Ancient city in Henan just west of Zhengzhou

Sanmenxia  三门峡  Ancient city in Henan just west of Luoyang

Weinan  渭南  Ancient city in Shaanxi just west of Sanmenxia

Shaanxi  陕西  Ancient city in Shaanxi, just west of Weinan

Henan  河南  Province in China

Quanzhou  泉州  Ancient port city in Fujian

Yangzhou  扬州 Historic commercially rich city in Jiangsu

Xinjiang  新疆  Formerly known as Chinese Turkestan

Yue Fei  岳飞  Southern Song dynasty general wrongfully accused of treason

Jin Zhong Bao Guo   尽忠报国  Serve the country with the greatest loyalty, words tattooed on Yue Fei’s back

Li Zicheng  李自成  Rebel who contributed to the downfall of the Ming dynasty

Ai, Shi, Gao, Jin, Li, Zhang, Zhao 艾,石,高,金,李,张, 赵  The seven surnames granted to the Jews of Kaifeng by the Ming emperor.

Ai Tian  艾田  Chinese Jew from Kaifeng who met Matteo Ricci in 1605

Li Madou  利玛窦  Matteo Ricci

Wanli Emperor  万历帝  Long reigning Ming Dynasty emperor

Tiaojinjiao  挑筋教  The religion that removes the tendons, what Chinese called Judaism.

gaige kaifang  改革开放  Reform and opening up to the outside world

Harbin  哈尔滨  City in Manchuria, Heilongjiang province

Hui  回  The Muslim race in China

 

CHP-111-The Wu State

Map of China during the Spring & Autumn Period.
Map of China during the Spring & Autumn Period.

This week we delve back into the mists of ancient times to look at the State of Wu from the Spring & Autumn Period.  Although they didn’t last long, the Wu State had a major impact on the development of the culture of the Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai  region.  There are a few Wu periods in Chinese history.  Today we will also try to sort them all out.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Huiwang Gou Wu  回望勾吴  Looking back on Gou Wu

Yangzhou 扬州  Ancient city in South Jiangsu

Wu Guo 吴国  The State of Wu

Yangzi 扬子  The Yangtze River

Chang Jiang  长江  What Chinese call the Yangtze

Jiangnan  江南  “south of the Yangzi River”, general term for the culture in the upper reaches of the Yangzi.

Lake Tai  太湖  Lake in Suzhou

Wuxi  无锡  Ancient city next door to Suzhou

Suzhou  苏州  Ancient city in Jiangsu Province

Changzhou  常州  Ancient city in Jiangsu Province

Shaoxing  绍兴  Ancient city in north Zhejiang Province

Jiaxing  嘉兴  Ancient city in north Zhejiang Province

Yongle  永乐  The Yong Le Emperor of the Ming Dynasty

Zheng He  郑和  The great explorer and diplomat featured in CHP 92-93-94

Zhou Wu Wang  周武王  Ji Fa, King Wu of Zhou

Di Xin  帝辛  King Zhou of Shang

Zhengzhou  郑州  Ancient city in Henan

Luoyang  洛阳  One of China’s ancient capitals, located in Henan

Laozi   老子  Lao Tzu

Ji  姬  The surname of the Zhou Kings

Chu  楚  The State of Chu in Hubei

Jin  晋  The State of Jin (also Western Jin)

Qi  齐  The State of Qi in Shandong

Lu  鲁  The State of Lu in Shandong

Yue  越  The Yue people and Yue state

Liangzhu  良渚文化 Liangzhu Culture, a late neolithic culture in north Zhejiang

San Huang Wu Di  三皇五帝  The Three Sovereigns & Five Emperors

Wu Taibo  吴泰伯  Founder of the Wu State and the Wu 吴 Clan。

Zhou Tai Wang  周太王  Founder of the Zhou Clan during Shang Dynasty

Gugong Danfu 古公亶父  One of King Tai of Zhou’s other names

Ji Danfu  姬亶父  Another posthumous name for King Tai of Zhou

Zhongyong  仲雍  Younger brother of Taibo and second leader of Wu State

Ji Li  季历  Younger brother of Taibo and Zhongyong, father of King Wen of Zhou

Ji Chang   姬昌  King Wen of Zhou

Battle of Bì  邲之战  Battle in 597 BC between Chu and Jin where Chu scored a decisive victory.

Shi Ji  史记  The Records of the Grand Historian, written by Sima Qian

Shoumeng  寿梦 Wu King who put them on the military path that led to their downfall

Qufu  曲阜  Capital of Lu State and burial site of Confucius

Linzi  临淄  Capital of Qi State in Shandong

Zibo  淄博  Located in central Shandong, formerly Linzi

Qi Lu Liangguo 齐鲁两国  The States of Qi and Lu (name for east Shandong)

Wu Zixu  伍子胥  Influential minister during Wu State

King Ping  楚平王 Murderous Chu king.  Had Wu Zixu’s father and brother killed.

Wu She 伍奢  Father of Wu Zixu, killed by King Ping

Duke of Shen  Also called Wuchen, an emissary from Jin State who convinced Wu to attack Chu

Sun Wu  孙武  Also known as Sun Tzu

Sunzi Bingfa  孙子兵法  The Art of War, written by Sun Tzu

Prince Guang 公子光  The future King Helü of Wu

Zhuan Zhu  专诸 Famous Wu State assassin.  Killed King Liao of Wu

Ou Yezi  欧冶子 Legendary master sword maker from Spring & Autumn period

Yuchang  鱼肠剑  The sword made by Ou Yezi used by Zhuan Zhu to kill King Liao

Helü  阖闾  King of Wu State

Fugai  覆盖  Brother of King Helü

Battle of Boju  柏舉之战  The Battle of Boju in 506 BC where Wu defeated Chu

Ying  郢 Capital of Chu State, in present day Xichuan, Henan

Xichuan  西川 City in Henan, site of the ancient Chu capital Ying

Huai River   淮河  Major river in China

Han River  汉河  Major river in Hubei

Nang Wa  囊瓦  Chu State’s strongest general

Hanchuan  汉川  Site of three battles between the forces of Wu and Chu

Dabie Mountains  大别山  central China Mountain chain on Hubei-Henan border

Liu Bocheng  刘伯承  Great revolutionary and military man of the PRC and Deng ally

Fuchai  夫差  King of Wu, son of Helü

Ying Zheng  嬴政  Name of Qin king and China’s future unifying emperor Qin Shihuang

King Goujian  勾践王  King of Yue State

Han Gou  邗沟  The Han Canal, precursor of The Grand Canal

Guanwa Palace  馆娃宫  Palace built by Fuchai for Xi Shi

Xi Shi  西施  Legendary beauty who Fuchai was obsessed over.

Si da mei nü  四大美女  The Four Beauties of Ancient China

Wang Zhaojun  王昭君 Western Han beauty from Hubei married off to a Xiongnu king. Birds fell out of the sky when they saw her beauty.

Diaochan  貂蝉  One of the fabled beauties of ancient times, from the Three Kingdoms period. Her beauty eclipsed the moon.

Yang Guifei  杨贵妃  Tang Dynasty zaftig beauty and tragic lover of Emperor Xuanzong.  Many blame the Tang’s fall on her wiles.

Xu Men   胥门  Gate in the ancient walled city of Suzhou

Jingzhou  荆州  City in Hubei  close to the ancient Chu capital of Ying

Hubei Sheng Bowuguan  湖北省博物馆  The Hubei Provincial Museum

Cao Cao  曹操  Controlled the State of Wei in the north during the Three Kingdoms Period

Qian  钱  Surname of the clan who controlled the Wuyue State

Zhuang Zedong  庄则栋  PRC Table tennis great who played a major role in ping pong diplomacy

 

CHP-110-The History of Hong Kong Part 10

Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher meet in Beijing during the talks leading up to the Joint Declaration.
Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher meet in Beijing during the talks leading up to the Joint Declaration.

In this episode we will conclude our History of Hong Kong overview.  We’ll look at the years following the 1967 riots and the reforms championed by Governor Murray MacLehose in the 1970’s and 80’s.  We’ll close out this series by looking at the dramatic lead up to and the signing of the Joint Declaration, the Basic Law and the handover on July 1, 1997.

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TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Sha Tin  沙田 Sha Tin in the New Territories
Tuen Mun  屯门  Tuen Mun in the western New Territories
Tai Po 大埔  Tai Po in the New Territories
Huang Hua  黄华  China’s Foreign Minister during the opening up years
Sheung Shui  上水 Sheung Shui in the north New Territories
Fanling  粉岭  Fanling in the north New Territories
Dixia Tielu Gongsi  地下铁路公司  The MTRC, Mass Transit Railway Corp.  One of the ultimate subways and railroads
Shek Kip Mei  石硖尾  Shek Kip Mei, site of the Christmas fire in 1953, located in northern Kowloon
Kwun Tong 官塘  District in east Kowloon, for many years the last stop on the green line.
Lianzheng Gongshu  廉政公署  The ICAC, Independant Commission Against Corruption
Y.K. Pao  包玉刚  Ningbo’s pride!  Entrepreneur who escaped chaos in China.  Became the greatest shipping tycoon of his age. Played behind the scenes role during the handover period.
Li Ka-shing  李嘉诚 HK’s greatest success story and Chaozhou’s pride!
Tang Shiu-kin  邓肇坚  Grandfather of David Tang. Entrepreneur from the early days and noted philanthropist.
Shouson Chow  周壽臣  Legendary businessman and early bridge between the west and China.  Shouson Hill in HK named after him.
Zhaoshangju Jituan  招商局集团  China Merchants Group.
Zhao Ziyang  赵紫阳  Former Party Secretary and Premier and controversial historic person since May 19, 1989.
Li Xiannian  李先念  One of the eight immortals.  Military and political great.  One of the good ones!
Ji Pengfei  姬鹏飞  Head of the Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office. Played major role leading to the handover.
Xu Jiatun  许家屯  Former Director of Xinhua in HK during the leadup to the handover. Succeeded by the unforgettable Zhou Nan.
Li Zhuming  李柱铭  Martin Lee, HK’s most famous liberal and promoter of democracy。 Also a lawyer of well repute.
Yiguo liangzhi  一国两制  One Country Two Systems
Lu Ping  鲁平  Succeeded Ji Pengfei as head of the Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office
Tung Chee Wha  董建华  HK’s first Chief Executive and former OOCL boss.
Gongxi Facai  恭喜发财  In Cantonese: Kung Hey Fat Choy.  Traditional NY greeting in HK.
Gonghe Xinxi  恭贺新禧  Another traditional New Year Greeting in China
Wanshi Ruyi  万事如意  Another lucky saying basically saying may you have good fortune in everything.